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《律商中国法律透视》
《律商中国法律透视》2017-03
- Editorial Notes
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  中国民法总则诞生 开启“民法典时代”
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   首页 > 中国法律透视 > 新闻和交易
中国民法总则诞生 开启“民法典时代”
(English Version)   

 

中国民法总则诞生 开启“民法典时代”

近日,第十二届全国人民代表大会第五次会议表决通过《中华人民共和国民法总则》(下称《民法总则》),经第六十六号主席令签署公布,自2017年10月1日起施行。

《民法总则》共11章206条,就民法基本原则、民事主体、民事权利、民事法律行为、民事责任和诉讼时效等基本民事法律制度作出规定。《民法总则》下调了限制民事行为能力的未成年人的年龄标准至8周岁,增加了保护胎儿利益的规定,完善了监护制度。《民法总则》将法人分为营利法人、非营利法人和特别法人3类,赋予了非法人组织民事主体地位,规定其包括个人独资企业、合伙企业、不具有法人资格的专业服务机构等。《民法总则》对个人信息保护作了有针对性的规定,对知识产权作了概括性规定,对数据、网络虚拟财产的保护也作了规定。《民法总则》通过后,暂不废止民法通则,两者规定不一致的适用《民法总则》。(来源:中国人大网)

国知局修改《专利审查指南》

近日,国知局发布《关于修改〈专利审查指南〉的决定》(下称《决定》),自4月1日起施行。

《决定》明确,在满足修改原则的前提下,修改权利要求书的具体方式一般限于权利要求的删除、技术方案的删除、权利要求的进一步限定、明显错误的修正。其中,权利要求的进一步限定是指在权利要求中补入其他权利要求中记载的一个或者多个技术特征,以缩小保护范围。根据《决定》,对于已经公布但尚未公告授予专利权的发明专利申请案卷,可以查阅和复制其中的有关内容,包括申请文件、公布文件、在初步审查程序中向申请人发出的通知书和决定书、申请人对通知书的答复意见正文等;对于已经公告授予专利权的,可以查阅和复制的内容包括申请文件、优先权文件、专利权评价报告等。(来源:国家知识产权局)

最高法发布第16批指导性案例

近日,最高法院下发《关于发布第16批指导性案例的通知》(下称《通知》),相关案例供法院在审判类似案件时参照。

根据《通知》,第16批一共10件指导性案例(78号-87号),均涉及知识产权领域,包括9个民事案例和1个刑事案例。民事指导性案例主要涉及著作权侵权纠纷、商标权侵权纠纷、专利权侵权纠纷、植物新品种权侵权纠纷、反垄断领域中的捆绑交易纠纷、滥用市场支配地位纠纷等;刑事指导性案例涉及假冒商标犯罪。其中,指导案例第78号为北京奇虎科技有限公司诉腾讯科技(深圳)有限公司、深圳市腾讯计算机系统有限公司滥用市场支配地位纠纷案,裁判此类案件须关注如何界定相关市场、是否具有市场支配地位、是否构成反垄断法所禁止的滥用市场支配地位行为等方面。(来源:最高人民法院)

人社部修改外国人在中国就业管理规定

近日,人社部下发《关于修改〈外国人在中国就业管理规定〉的决定》(下称《决定》),自公布之日施行。

《决定》对《外国人在中国就业管理规定》有关条款进行修改,具体如下:一、将第八条、第十条中的“职业签证”修改为“Z字签证”。二、删去第十四条。三、将第十五条修改为“获准来中国工作的外国人,应凭许可证书及本国有效护照或能代替护照的证件,到中国驻外使、领馆、处申请Z字签证。凡符合第九条第二项规定的人员,应凭中国海洋石油总公司签发的通知函电申请Z字签证;凡符合第九条第三项规定的人员,应凭文化部的批件申请Z字签证。凡符合本规定第十条第一款规定的人员,应凭合作交流项目书申请Z字签证;凡符合第十条第二项规定的人员,应凭工商行政管理部门的登记证明申请Z字签证。”(来源:人力资源和社会保障部)

《关于滥用知识产权的反垄断指南》公开征意

近日,国务院反垄断委员会办公室发布《关于滥用知识产权的反垄断指南(征求意见稿)》(下称《征求意见稿》),现向社会公开征求意见,意见反馈截止于4月21日。

《征求意见稿》共5章27条,包含一般问题、涉及知识产权的垄断协议、涉及知识产权的滥用市场支配地位行为、涉及知识产权的经营者集中以及涉及知识产权的其他情形等内容。根据《征求意见稿》,涉及知识产权的协议包括联合研发、交叉许可、独占性回授、不质疑条款、标准制定等情形。《征求意见稿》规定了安全港规则,明确经营者符合“具有竞争关系的经营者在相关市场的市场份额合计不超过20%”等3种条件之一的,通常不将其达成的涉及知识产权的协议认定为垄断协议,但有相反证据证明的除外。(来源:商务部)


Introduction of the General Rules of the Civil Law Brings China into the Age of "Civil Code"

Recently, the General Rules of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China (the "General Rules of the Civil Law") have been adopted at the Fifth Session of the 12th National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China and issued upon approval under the Order of the President No.66, and shall come into force as of October 1, 2017.

The General Rules of the Civil Law, comprised of 11 chapters with a total of 206 articles, provide for the civil law's basic principles, civil subjects, civil rights, civil justice acts, civil liability and limitation of actions and other fundamental systems on the civil law. The General Rules of the Civil Law lower the threshold age of a minor having limited capacity for civil conduct to the age of eight, add new provisions to protect interests of fetuses, and improve the guardianship system. Also, the General Rules of the Civil Law categorize legal persons into three groups, namely, the profit-making legal persons, non-profit legal persons and special legal persons, endowing an unincorporated association with the civil subject status and providing that unincorporated associations include the sole proprietorship enterprises, partnership enterprises and those professional service agencies not qualified as legal persons. Furthermore, the General Rules of the Civil Law make specific provisions on the protection of personal information, general provisions on intellectual property rights and also other provisions on the protection of data and online virtual properties. Although the General Rules of the Civil Law have been adopted, the General Principles of the Civil Law will not be repealed temporarily. Where there is any discrepancy between the two laws, the General Rules of the Civil Law shall prevail. (Source: http://www.npc.gov.cn/npc/xinwen/2017-03/15/content_2018907.htm)

SIPO Revises the Patent Examination Guidelines

Recently, the State Intellectual Property Office ("SIPO") has issued the Decision on Amending the Patent Examination Guidelines (the "Decision"), which shall come into force as of April 1, 2017.

The Decision makes it clear that to the extent of upholding the modification principles, the specific methods for modifying the letter requesting proprietary rights shall be generally limited to the deletion of the patent claims, the deletion of the technical solutions, the further limitation of the patent claims, and the correction of obvious errors. In particular, further limitation of the patent claims means the addition of one or more technical characteristics which are recorded in other patent claims to the patent claims, so as to narrow down the scope of protection. According to the Decision, for the invention patent application files that have been published but the granting of the patent right has not been publicly announced yet, relevant contents in the patent application files can be consulted and copied, including the application documents, publication documents, the notice and decision letter issued to the applicant in the preliminary examination, and main body of the reply given by the applicant to such notice; for a patent right that has been announced and granted, contents that can be consulted and copied shall include the application documents, priority documents and the patent evaluation report. (Source: http://211.157.104.86:8080/ogic/view/govinfo!detail.jhtml?id=3338)

SPC Issues the 16th Batch of Guiding Cases

Recently, the Supreme People's Court ("SPC") has distributed the Circular on Releasing the 16th Batch of Guiding Cases (the "Circular") for courts' reference in trying similar cases.

According to the Circular, the 16th batch includes a total of 10 guiding cases (No.78-No.87), all of which relate to the intellectual property field, including nine civil cases and one criminal case. Civil guiding cases mainly involve disputes over infringement upon the copyright, trademark rights, patent rights and rights of new plant varieties, disputes over the bundle trading in the field of anti-monopoly, and disputes over the abuse of dominant market position, while the criminal guiding case relates to the crime of counterfeiting trademarks. In particular, the guiding case No.78 is "Beijing Qihoo 360 Technology Co. Ltd. v. Tencent Technology (Shenzhen) Co. Ltd. and Shenzhen Tencent Computer System Co. Ltd. (dispute over the abuse of dominant market position)". Ruling of such case requires the consideration of several issues, such as how to determine the relevant market, whether it has the dominant market position or not, and whether it constitutes the act of abusing dominant market position prohibited under the Anti-monopoly Law. (Source: http://www.legaldaily.com.cn/index/content/2017-03/09/content_7045576.htm)

MOHRSS Revises the Administrative Provisions on Foreigners' Employment in China

Recently, the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security ("MOHRSS") has distributed the Decision on Revising the Administrative Provisions on the Employment of Foreigners in China (the "Decision") which will come into force as of the date of promulgation.

The Decision involves revisions made to certain articles of the Administrative Provisions on the Employment of Foreigners in China ("Provisions"). To be specific, the first is changing the "occupational visa" set forth in Article 8 and Article 10 into the "Z visa"; the second is removing Article 14; the third is revising Article 15 to read "any foreigner who has obtained an approval to work in China may apply to the Chinese embassies, consulates and offices in foreign countries for the Z visa by presenting his or her permit and valid passport issued by his or her home country or any other eligible substitutes for the passport. Anyone who meets requirements of Item 2 of Article 9 may apply for the Z visa with the notice letter issued by China National Offshore Oil Corporation, while anyone who satisfies requirements of Item 3 of Article 9 may apply for the Z visa with the approved documents from the Ministry of Culture. Anyone who meets requirements of Paragraph 1 of Article 10 of the Provisions may apply for the Z visa with the document for a cooperation and exchange project, whereas anyone meeting requirements of Item 2 of Article 10 may apply for the Z visa by showing the registration certificate issued by administrative departments for industry and commerce." (Source: http://www.mohrss.gov.cn/SYrlzyhshbzb/zcfg/flfg/gz/201703/t20170315_267970.html)

Public Comments Sought on the Anti-Monopoly Guidelines on Abuse of Intellectual Property Rights

Recently, the Office of Anti-monopoly Committee of the State Council has issued the Anti-Monopoly Guidelines on the Abuse of Intellectual Property Rights (Draft for Comment) (the "Draft for Comment") for public comments before April 21, 2017.

The Draft for Comment, organized into five chapters with a total of 27 articles, covers the general issues, monopoly agreements relating to intellectual property rights ("IPRs"), abuse of dominant market position relating to IPRs, concentration of undertakings relating to IPRs and other circumstances involving IPRs. According to the Draft for Comment, agreements involving IPRs include circumstances on joint research and development, cross-licensing, exclusive grant-back, no-challenge clause and formulation of standards etc. Besides, the Draft for Comment includes safe harbor provisions, clearly stating that where operators concerned fall under any of three conditions, one of which reads as "operators which compete against each other possess an aggregate market share of no more than 20 percent in the relevant market", an agreement involving IPRs reached among them is deemed as not monopolistic in most cases, unless there is evidence to the contrary. (Source: http://fldj.mofcom.gov.cn/article/zcfb/201703/20170302539418.shtml)

 
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